Romanesque sculpture was frequently used on he façades and exterior of the buildings, mainly in doorways (archivolts, tympana and capitals)

The tympanum is the semicircular space between the upper part of a door or window and the arch over it. 

Glossary of Medieval Art and Architecture:tympanum | Romanesque art, Medieval  art, Art and architecture

Sculptures has to adapt to the architectural frame which means their shapes must fit into the form of an architectural element on which they were carved.

Glossary of Medieval Architecture:Block, Cubic or Cushion Capital

Glossary of Medieval Art and Architecture:Archivolt

Sculpture had a didactic purpose as it wanted to teach the Christian beliefs  to people who mainly were illiterate.  The main themes were religious and you could find the Pantocrator – representation of Christ as ruler of the universe, seated and blessing with one hand – surrounded by the Evangelists.

Relief sculpture also had its importance and they were free-standing (not attached to the wall). They represented Christ on the cross or the Virgin with the Child.

Virgin and Child in Majesty | French | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
christ romanesque, carving wood, the twelfth century, museum deu | Pikist

Figures were rigid, static and inexpressive.

Romanesque art - Wikipedia



worksheet on romanesque painting

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